21

July, 2021

Employers Throughout the NY Tri-State Area Face New Obligations: Takeaways Summer 2021

Summer 2021 has brought changes for employers throughout the New York tri-state area, as New York is mandating employers plan for the next pandemic; New Jersey is cracking down on wage law violations; and Connecticut passed four significant new employment mandates on cannabis use, nursing mothers, pay equity and voting. Employer obligations in response to COVID, on the other hand, are now dictated largely at the federal level. Our Summer 2021 issue of Takeaways covers all these legal developments, as well as the most recent federal employment law changes and relevant court decisions.

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14

July, 2021

Four New State Laws Require Actions by Connecticut Employers to Achieve Compliance

By Alexandra Lapes and Tracey Levy

After a very quiet 2020, this past legislative season has brought a series of new mandates for private employers in Connecticut.  These include new obligations regarding reasonable accommodations for breastfeeding employees, extended time off to vote, new parameters for pay equity, and updates to cannabis workplace protections, as Connecticut has joined New York and New Jersey to legalize recreational cannabis this year.

Breastfeeding Workers Receive Additional Protections
Beginning October 1, 2021, employees are entitled to enhanced protections when expressing breast milk in the workplace.  Existing law required employers to make reasonable efforts to provide a room or other location in close to proximity to an employee’s work area to breastfeed.  Amendments to the law dictate specifics about the type of room that must be made available.  Employers must ensure the room is: (1) free from intrusion and shielded from the public while the employee uses the room, (2) situated next to or near a refrigerator or other employee-provided portable cold storage unit for the employee to store the milk, and (3) includes access to an electric outlet, provided that there is no undue hardship for the employer.

Unpaid Time Off to Vote
If requested at least two days in advance, employers must provide all employees with two hours of unpaid time off to vote in any state election or, if the employee is an elector, for any special election of a legislative representative at the federal or state level.  The law took effect immediately upon its passage but is scheduled to sunset on June 30, 2024.

Pay Equity and Transparency
Connecticut has revised its equal pay act to prohibit pay differences between sexes for comparable work (previously the standard was “equal” work) on a job.   Employers must evaluate comparable work as a composite of skill, effort, responsibility, and whether performed under similar working conditions.  Differentials in pay may be lawful if the employer can demonstrate they are based on bona fide factors other than sex, including but not limited to, education, training, credentials, skill, geographic location, or experience.

The new law, which takes effect October 1, 2021, also imposes new pay transparency obligations that require employers to disclose to applicants and employees the “wage range” for the position they are applying to or occupy.  For job applicants, the wage range must be disclosed upon the earliest of the applicant’s request or prior to or at the time a job offer is made that includes compensation.  For employees, the wage range must be disclosed upon hire, a change in the employee’s position, or the employee’s first request.

The law defines “wage range” as the range of wages an employer anticipates relying on when setting wages for a position, and the reference may include any applicable pay scale, range of wages previously determined for the position, the actual range of wages for current employees holding comparable positions, or the employer’s budgeted amount for the position.  The law provides a two-year limitation period for actions against employers who violate the new requirements and provides for various remedies and damages.

Legalization of Recreational Cannabis
Connecticut has now become the 19th state to legalize recreational cannabis use for adults aged 21 and over.  Effective July 1, 2022, employers in Connecticut may not prohibit the off-work use of cannabis or take adverse action against an employee or potential employee for use of cannabis prior to applying for, while working for an employer, or based on a positive THC test, except under limited circumstances and only with advance written notice.

As in New York and New Jersey, the Connecticut law makes clear that employers are not required to make accommodations for an employee to use cannabis while performing job duties, and employers can prohibit employees from possessing or consuming cannabis while at work.  The law also allows employers to take adverse action against employees who are impaired at work, upon (1) reasonable suspicion of an employee’s use of cannabis while engaged in the performance of the employee’s work responsibilities at the workplace or on-call, or (2) upon determining that an employee manifests specific, articulable symptoms of drug impairment while working or on-call that decrease or lessen the employee’s performance of the employees’ job duties.

Employers can also drug test employees or applicants and discipline or terminate an employee, or rescind a conditional offer of employment, based on a positive drug test result in certain circumstances.  As a threshold matter, the employer must have an established written policy that prohibits possession, use or other consumption of cannabis by an employee, and the policy must be made available to each employee (either physically or electronically), prior to the enactment of the drug testing program.  For job applicants, the drug testing policy must be made available to each prospective employee at the time the employer makes an offer of conditional employment.  Without this advance written notice, the employer cannot take any actions with respect to an employee’s use or possession of cannabis products outside the workplace.

Even if the employer has provided appropriate notice, however, employers cannot discipline employees or applicants based solely on a positive drug test.  Rather, they additionally need to show that:

  • failing to discipline/revoke an offer would cause the employer to lose a federal contract,
  • the employer reasonably believes the employee is engaged in cannabis use while performing the employee’s work duties, or
  • the employee manifests specific, articulable symptoms of drug impairment while working that decrease or lesson the employee’s performance.

An individual aggrieved by an employer’s violation of these provisions has 90 days to file a claim in state court.  However, a cause of action will not be implied in several circumstances, including but not limited to, if the employer had a good faith belief that an employee used or possessed cannabis while performing work, in violation of an employer’s workplace policy.

Takeaways
These new laws require updating employment policies.  Updates to comply with unpaid voting leave need to be put in place immediately, while employers have until October 1 to update their policies and practices with regard to breastfeeding accommodations and pay transparency.  Employers may want to undertake a review of their compensation practices to confirm they will meet the new “comparable work” standard.  Finally, employers have until next July 1 to develop and distribute written policies with regard to drug testing and maintaining a drug free workplace if they wish to police cannabis usage in the workplace.

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25

June, 2021

Protecting the Unvaccinated Presents an Employee Relations Quandary for Employers

By Tracey I. Levy

Under the Biden administration, the CDC has taken a strong position in support of vaccinating as many individuals in the United States as possible. The latest, very well-publicized carrot to incentivize that effort has come in the form of a lifting of COVID-19-related precautionary safety measures for those who are vaccinated. Masking, social distancing, workplace signage about effective hand washing – are all a relic of the past for those who have reached the point of “fully vaccinated.” But as discussed in our prior blog post, the guidance from OSHA is that masking and other COVID-19 precautions should remain in place for employees who are not vaccinated.

Very few workplaces have achieved the point of 100 percent vaccination, and therefore the practical effect of the government’s duality in approach is to bring the full weight of peer pressure down on those who are not vaccinated. The guidance from the EEOC stresses that accommodations must be made for those who are not vaccinated for medical or religious reasons, but employers who endeavor to do so are running into a significant employee relations problem. How do you provide vaccinated employees with the flexibility to resume the panoply of normal activities, while the unvaccinated subset of the workplace is immediately recognizable by their masks and social distancing measures? How do you resume pre-COVID activities like business travel, especially internationally, when a subset of your workforce may be unable to participate due to COVID restrictions? For workplaces that have been working largely remotely since March 2020 and are eagerly anticipating bringing employees back to the office in-person (at least several days per week), how do you rebuild team culture and fully integrate your newest hires who perhaps only know their colleagues by screen shots when any indoor group gathering will necessarily require sufficient spacing of a subset of the team and face masks will quickly brand those who opted out of vaccination?

There is no federal government guidance on this, currently, and a subset of states are contemplating laws similar to that which already took effect in Montana, which prohibit private employers from treating individuals differently based on vaccination status. Options employers may want to consider include:

• Maintain masking protocols in common areas, like pantries, break rooms and rest rooms;

o Those who are vaccinated may balk at being asked to continue masking, but the imposition is relatively modest, especially as the past year has gotten many individuals accustomed to having a mask on their person whenever they are out with others.

• Permit vaccinated employees to remove masks at their workspaces, and adjust seating arrangements where possible to provide social distancing between those who are not vaccinated;

• Explore options for having meetings, particularly larger gatherings, at outdoor venues;

• Schedule team meetings in conference rooms that allow sufficient spacing for six feet of social distancing, at least to accommodate the subset of employees who are unvaccinated;

o A conference room built for 20 can be reduced to only accommodating seven if everyone is socially-distanced, but a hybrid approach, in which social distancing might only be necessary for two or three individuals, could potentially allow that same conference room to seat a team of 15.

• Alternatively, continue to conduct team meetings by videoconference;

o One of the great benefits of meetings in which the entire team is participating by videoconference is that the participants all are equally-spaced and sized, and can more closely approximate speaking at the same audio level. That is a great equalizer when compared to in-person meetings in which some attendees can physically dominate the room and the conversation, and continuing videoconference meetings in the current environment similarly places the vaccinated and the unvaccinated on an equal plane.

• Reserve one or more smaller conference rooms or similar workspaces, perhaps outfitted with a portable HEPA filter for better air circulation, for use by unvaccinated employees when they are having one-to-one meetings with others;

o Some unvaccinated employees, especially those who are not vaccinated due to underlying medical conditions, may find their own mask to be insufficient protection when meeting with others who may not be masked, including clients or visitors whose vaccination status may not be known. Offering those employees an alternative, larger work space in which to conduct their meetings with social distancing and additional air filtration can reduce that concern, without “outing” the unvaccinated employee as someone with an underlying medical condition.

• Explore team-building activities that leverage the outdoors;

o As employers look to rebuild a cohesive culture, planning activities or events outside notably reduces the risks of COVID-19 exposure and enables unvaccinated employees to participate more freely.

• Advise managers, and all employees, to be sensitive to the range of reasons why employees may choose not to be vaccinated;

o To the same extent that we ask managers to address or report instances in which employees are engaging in harassment, retaliation or other inappropriate behaviors under respectful workplace policies, we want them to similarly address or report instances in which employees are being harassed or retaliated against based on their vaccination status.

• Regularly thank employees for adhering to protocols and being sensitive to their colleagues.

o None of this is easy, the stress of the past year has been overwhelming for many, and those who are vaccinated may have limited patience for continued COVID-19 precautions. Employers that acknowledge the strain and continue to express appreciation can help mitigate the negative impact on employee morale.

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3

June, 2021

The Courts Have Awoken: Takeaways Spring 2021

After a dearth of notable caselaw over the course of the pandemic, this past quarter brought five significant decisions across New York, New Jersey and Connecticut — addressing the parameters of employer obligations to medical marijuana users, the scope of New Jersey’s Pregnant Workers Fairness Act, business executives’ liability for harassing conduct by a supervisor, and New Jersey’s ban on arbitration of discrimination claims. Our Spring 2021 issue of Takeaways summarizes all those decisions, as well as recent employment law developments in New York and New Jersey resulting from the legalization of recreational marijuana usage, further updates on the ever-evolving maze of requirements related to COVID-19, expanded protections for discrimination related to employees’ hairstyles and head coverings, and a substantial increase in the minimum wage for federal contractors, taking effect in very short order.

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12

February, 2021

Employers Keep Getting Pounded: TAKEAWAYS for Winter 2020/21

We invite New York, New Jersey and Connecticut employers to view the latest issue of  Takeaways, our quarterly newsletter covering the most recent employment law changes.  For winter 2020/21, those include:

  • expansive protections of New York City job applicants and employees based on criminal history;
  • radical change in the employment relationship for fast food workers in New York City (also see our separate blog posting on that);
  • the most current minimum wage rates for New York, New Jersey and Connecticut;
  • the latest federal guidance on vaccinations, testing and workplace protections related to COVID-19
  • modified workplace posting standards;
  • a New York State law change on WARN Act notices and new interpretation of COVID-19 leave requirements; and
  • recent appellate court decisions on wage and hour issues in New York and New Jersey.
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