By Tracey I. Levy
New guidance issued by the New York City Commission of Human Rights expounds on both the breadth, and the limitations, of the city’s new wage transparency law. The law, which we discussed in our prior blog article, requires employers posting for a position in New York City to state in their job posting the minimum and maximum salary for the position. This requirement is currently scheduled to take effect May 15, 2022, but there is a pending legislative proposal under consideration in the City Council to delay the effective date.
Update: a May 12, 2022 amendment to the law delays the effective date to November 1.
Breadth in Applicability
The wage transparency law covers employers with four or more employees or one domestic worker. When counting “employees,” business owners, employees, interns and independent contractors must all be considered, as long as at least one of them works in New York City. Employment agencies are also covered. There is an exception for temp firms seeking applicants to join their pool of available workers, but the law provides that the employers who work with those temp firms must follow the new wage transparency law.
The law also extends to every form of advertisement or job posting – whether internal or external, printed or electronic, published or circulated. And it covers any type of job – whether a new position, a promotion or a transfer. Employers need not advertise for a position in order to hire, but if they do post or advertise in any way then the guidance states that they must comply with the law.
Limitations in Wage Information to Be Disclosed
Significantly, though, the wage transparency law is about disclosure of base pay only. Whether defined as an hourly wage or a fixed salary, that dollar value must be disclosed. The guidance makes clear that employers are not required to disclose, for example, either in specific or general terms, any bonuses, commissions, tips, stock, overtime pay, or other forms of compensation that may apply to the position. Compensation structures that will thereby experience little impact from the new law include:
- sales jobs paying largely on a commission basis;
- mid-level and higher positions in industries such as financial services for which the bulk of compensation is in the form of discretionary bonuses; and
- positions at tech firms and other start-ups that offer stock option awards as a significant component of their overall compensation plan.
New York City’s new law also does not require disclosure of wage supplements, such as paid time off, or benefits, including insurance or pension plan contributions. In this regard the law differs from its closest counterpart in Colorado, where employers are required to include in their job postings a general description of any bonuses and the nature of benefits provided.
The law further has its limitations – and the guidance is not particularly helpful – in regard to the wage range to be posted. Where the pay is fixed, perhaps at or slightly above minimum wage, meeting this requirement is as simple as posting “$15 per hour.” Where there is more flexibility or variability, depending on factors such as the candidate’s prior skills and experience or meeting the candidate’s stated salary expectations, New York City employers are directed to post a wage range based on the employer’s honest belief as of the time of the job posting as to the range of pay it would offer to a successful applicant.
States with similar wage transparency laws, most notably neighboring Connecticut, have defined benchmarks for employers to use in defining the wage range. These may be an applicable pay scale, the amount budgeted for the position, or the actual range of wages for those employees currently holding comparable positions. The New York City law, and this new guidance, are both silent on that point. Nothing in the law or the guidance states that an employer cannot hire someone at a wage that is above or below the posted range, but there also is nothing in the law or guidance that assures an employer it can make those hiring decisions.
Employers that hire, transfer or promote candidates into roles at wage rates that fall outside the posted range must therefore be prepared to demonstrate the bona fides of their original wage range estimate, as reflected in the job posting. These employers also should be prepared to explain why/how the wage they ultimately agreed to pay was not foreseeable at the time of the job posting.